Key takeaways for pond aeration
- Decline in ﬁsh population and the resulting increase in dragonﬂies due to pond eutrophication, hydroperiod modiﬁcation, and pollution indirectly harm insect-pollinated plants. The ﬁndings emphasize how different interconnected ecosystems drive landscape-level impacts.
- Results indicate that ﬁsh presence lowers larval and adult dragonﬂy population in and around ponds, causing cascading indirect effects on pollinator visitation rates and plant reproductive output in adjacent land.
- Interactions across ecosystem types (aquatic and terrestrial) may be key to gauging the effects of human activity on environmental change.